UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Unit I – Geomorphology
Unit II – Climatology
Unit III- Oceanography
Unit IV- Geography of Environment
Unit V – Population and Settlement Geography
Unit VI- Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development
Unit VII – Cultural, Social and Political Geography
Unit VIII – Geographic Thought
Unit IX – Geographical Techniques
Unit X- Geography of India
Imporatant Links:- Download Yoga Syllabus
Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories andb Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards
(earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches)
Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst , Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate.
Important Links:- Download General Paper Syllabus
Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone.
Geography of Environment
Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)
Population and Settlement Geography
Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.
Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).
Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development & Economic Geography
Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.
Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.
Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.
Geography of Transport and Trade
Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade. Regional Development Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India.
Unit – VII: Cultural, Social and Political Geography
Cultural and Social Geography
Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.