By an ocean or a sea one understands all larger waters, which are connected with each other. In this respect, for example, the Caspian Sea – despite its name – is not a sea in the sense of the definition of geographers or oceanographers.
The Arctic Ocean is also known as the Arctic Ocean or the Arctic Ocean. However, it is not seen by some geographers as their own ocean but as a side sea of the Atlantic Ocean.
With the Pacific, the Arctic Ocean is connected by the approximately 80 km wide Bering Strait, in the middle of the Diomede Islands, and with the Atlantic Ocean over the approximately 1,500 m wide European North Sea.
The Norwegian Sea is between Greenland and Scandinavia. The Arctic Ocean is mostly covered by ice, which – depending on its geographical location – reaches thicknesses of only 0.5 m to 6-8 m.
Svalbard lies in the south of the Arctic Ocean or in the north of the Norwegian Sea. In the southwest of the European North Sea you will find Iceland and about 440 km southeast of the Faroe Islands.
The Arctic Ocean covers an area of 14.09 million km² making it the smallest of all oceans.
The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 m.
The Arctic Ocean reaches its maximum depth in the 5,608 m deep Mollytief, which lies about 140 km west of Spitsbergen.
Part of the Arctic Ocean is the Beaufort Sea, which extends north of Alaska.
It borders the Amundsen Gulf, McClure Strait and Banks Island to the east and extends north to Prince Patrick Island.
It got its name after the British hydrograph Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), from which comes the Beaufort scale for the wind strengths.
The Beaufort Sea has an area of about 476,000 km² and is up to 4,685 m deep. The average depth is 1,005 m. One finds here oil and gas deposits.
In the lake are Banks Island, Prince Patrick Island and Herschel Island.
The 1,905 km long US Mackenzie River empties into the sea.
The Arctic Ocean has the following minor seas:
East Siberian Sea
States on the Arctic Ocean
The following states have a coast to the Arctic Ocean or its secondary seas:
Islands in the Arctic Ocean
The following are the alphabetical order of the largest islands in the Arctic Ocean:
Axel Heiberg Iceland
Axel Heiberg Iceland covers an area of 43,202 km² and belongs to Canada. Except for some researchers at the McGill research station, the island is virtually uninhabited.
The Norwegian Otto Sverdrup (1854-1930) had discovered the island in April 1899 and named it after the Norwegian Axel Heiberg (1848-1932), a co-founder of the Norwegian brewery Ringnes, who had financially supported the expedition
About 14,800 km ² of the island are covered by ice and glaciers.
The highest mountain of the island is the 2,120 m high White Crown Mountain
Baffin Island covers an area of 507,450 km² and is part of Canada. It is by far the largest island in the Arctic Sea. It is located west of Greenland.
On the island with the capital Iqaluit live about 12,000 people – most are Inuits.
At an altitude of 2,147 m, Mount Odin is the highest mountain on the island. On the island is the 20,500 km ² large Auyuittuq National Park.
Banks Island covers an area of 70,030 km² and is part of Canada. The highest mountain on the island is at 730m of Durham Heights. Only about 120 people live here
Noteworthy are the local herds of musk oxen and the Peary-Karabus.
The island got its name in honor of the British naturalist Sir Joseph Banks (1742-1820).
It was discovered by Frederick William Beechey (1796-1856), who had served as an officer in the British polar explorer Sir William Edward Parry on his expedition 1819/20.