Amu Darya River: An Overview
THE AMU DARYA has filled in as an extension between societies for a few centuries. A stream that streams straight crosswise over one of the harshest deserts on the planet, it has filled in as a characteristic parkway for transients and trespassers from Central Asia to South Asia and the MIDDLE EAST, just as a limit for the realms built up by these equivalent intruders. The Amu Darya begins high in the HINDU KUSH mountains at the limits of AFGHANISTAN, KASHMIR, CHINA, and TAJIKISTAN, at a height of 16,170 ft (4,900 m). From that point, it dives quickly to the incredible focal Asian marshes, which are generally secured by the Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum deserts. A significant part of the stream’s water is lost to dissipation and water system, so water levels are in reality least when it at long last achieves its mouth in a substantial delta on the ARAL SEA, 1,500 mi (2,419 km) later.
The waterway was known as the Oxus (or the River Styx, River of Hades) to the old Greeks and shaped the northern furthest point of the terrains vanquished by Alexander the Great in the fourth century B.C.E. The grounds that presently structure UZBEKISTAN and KAZAKHSTAN were hence referred to for quite a bit of their history as Trans-Oxiana. The waterway’s ebb and flow name originate from the antiquated city of Amulya (close Chardzhou), in addition to Darya (Turkic for “stream”). The water system has for some time been fundamental to urban areas in the district, urban communities whose significance was uplifted as stops on the SILK ROAD from Persia to China. Significant sultanates grew up around the urban communities of Khiva, close to the delta, and Bukhara further upstream, close to the juncture of the deserts and the lower regions of the incredible mountains toward the east. Rich desert soils, watered by the Amu Darya and washed in unending daylight, were well known for their generation of additional sweet organic products, strikingly apricots, dates, and melons, and sweet-smelling plants, for example, lavender and sage. Magnificent Russian and later Soviet organizations expanded the improvement of the water system of the Amu Darya valley, making Uzbekistan into a main maker of cotton, however, have additionally made the ARAL SEA psychologist to in size. At certain occasions amid low water, the Amu Darya does not achieve the Aral by any stretch of the imagination.
The Amu Darya bowl channels 208,558 square mi (534,764 square km), including the greater part of Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan, and a little region of south KYRGYZSTAN. Seventy-two percent of the bowl is bone-dry, while 22 percent is cropland through the water system. About from its source in the Wakhan beg of northeastern Afghanistan, the stream fills in as the fringe between that nation and Tajikistan and is nourished by a few swift-moving mountain tributaries from the two nations.
The waterway is known as the Vakhan Darya until it is joined by the biggest of these tributaries, the Vakhsh, from Tajikistan, at that point expect the name the Amu Darya. At it’s rising up out of the lower regions of these incredible mountains, the stream valley turns into the fringe among Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, however, a significant part of the waterway itself exists in the last until the city of Chardzhou, and inside the previous from Khiva to the delta. In this section, the waterway is moderate and wide and gets no tributaries at all and next to no rain, therefore losing roughly 25 percent of its volume before it achieves the Aral Sea.
Chardzhou, the biggest city in northeastern Turkmenistan, denotes the limit among semidesert and desert; starting here on, the sands of the Kara Kum approach the stream legitimately and add significantly to the officially overwhelming heap of sediment, sand, and mud being conveyed by the waterway from the mountains. The Amu Darya is viewed as the most intensely silted waterway on the planet, with its high volume of suspended material giving it its trademark cloudy yellow shading.
The eastern pieces of the stream in Turkestan have flammable gas holds. Transportation from this inside is connected to Turkestan’s capital and ports on the CASPIAN SEA by the Kara Kum Canal and a railroad interface that crosses the Amu Darya in a noteworthy mile-long extension at Chardzhou. The Amu Darya itself is minimally utilized for business traffic since the Aral Sea associates with no different waterways and river itself are filled with constantly shifting sandbars and a variety of meanders.
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