Afghanistan: A Landlocked Country
Territory 250,000 square mi (647,500 square km)
Populace 31.28 million 2014
Most noteworthy Point 24,550 ft (7,485 m)
Absolute bottom 846 ft (258 m)
Gross domestic product $20.84 billion 2014
Essential Natural Resources flammable gas, oil.
THE STATE OF AFGHANISTAN is a landlocked nation that fringes PAKISTAN toward the south, IRAN toward the west, TURKMENISTAN, UZBEKISTAN, and TAJIKISTAN toward the north, and CHINA toward the upper east. The nation is partitioned into 32 areas. Since the topple of the Taliban in 2001, Afghanistan is reproducing its administration.
Afghanistan, known since antiquated occasions for its lapis mines, is separated by a few mountain ranges. Slicing the nation down the middle is the HINDU KUSH, from which littler extents venture: from the Band-I-Turkestan on the west to the Suleiman Range toward the east. Toward the southeast is the Dasht-I-Margo desert. Afghanistan has a dry atmosphere with sweltering summers and cold winters. The nation encounters inadequate precipitation. Its main waterways are the AMU DARYA, the Kabul, the Helmand, and the Hari Rud. Significant urban areas incorporate Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Mazar e-Sharif, Jalalabad, and Konduz.
The district in and around Afghanistan has been occupied since the Paleolithic and Neolithic times. Afghanistan has been the scene of movements from the beginning of time. Since old occasions, Afghanistan caught the enthusiasm of outside people groups. The locale of what is presently Afghanistan gone into written history under the PERSIAN EMPIRE. By 331 B.C.E., Alexander the Great expanded his domain into Afghanistan subsequent to overcoming Persia. Alexander’s realm crumbled after his demise in 323 B.C.E. with Afghanistan going to Seleucis Nikator, one of his officers. Afghanistan not long after went under the control of Chandragupta from INDIA. Around 650 C.E., ISLAM came to Afghanistan through Arabs who vanquished the Sassanids in Persia. In 1219, the Mongols under Genghis Khan spread devastation all through Afghanistan. For a long time, Afghanistan was a piece of the strategic maneuvers between the Mughals in India and the Safavids in Persia. In the eighteenth century, Afghanistan was joined out of the blue under Ahmed Shah Durrani, who made a realm that included cutting edge Pakistan.
By the nineteenth century, Afghanistan was gotten amidst the supreme desire of Britain, which had controlling interests in India and RUSSIA. England battled two wars to deal with Afghanistan, the two of which finished shockingly. In the twentieth century, Afghanistan entered a time of modernization through King Amanullah somewhere in the range of 1919 and 1929. In 1933, King Mohammad Zahir Shah broadened the modernization through the making of a constitution and a parliament. Nonetheless, by the 1960s, the socialists had picked up a decent footing in Afghan governmental issues, and by 1973, Sardar Mohammad Daoud canceled the government and set up a republic with budgetary sponsorship from the Soviet Union.
In 1979, the Soviet Union attacked Afghanistan to help a socialist government under the Najibullah routine. Soviet occupation was met by savage obstruction by the Mujahideen, who were for the most part upheld by the United States. In 1989, the Soviets pulled back from Afghanistan, inciting common war among the Mujahideen. By 1996, Afghanistan fell under the standard of the Taliban, an obsessive radical Muslim organization. The Taliban forced Sharia law as the lawful framework for Afghanistan and seriously confined ladies’ rights. Furthermore, Afghanistan turned into a reproducing ground for global fear based oppression, harboring Osama container Laden, pioneer of the al Qaeda psychological militant gathering that engineered the assaults in New York City and Washington, D.C., on September 11, 2001.
In November of that year, the United States drove an alliance of countries to topple the Taliban routine, when it would not surrender receptacle Laden. The Taliban offered no noteworthy opposition and withdrew to the mountains. Toward the finish of 2001, an understanding was come to in Bonn, Germany, to spread out an outline for Afghanistan’s reproduction.
Afghanistan has a various cluster of ethnic gatherings. The Pashtun are the lion’s share ethnic gathering, trailed by Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baluch, and Nuristani. Pashto and Dari are the principle dialects spoken. Twenty years of war have left Afghanistan’s foundation in vestiges. Horticulture makes up 60 percent of the economy. Afghanistan is one of the main exporters of opium, which is most gainful for ranchers to develop.
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